|Innate immunity is the inborn immunity of the person. Innate immunity is non-specific in nature. The response of innate immune depends on the recognition of evolutionarily conserved structures present on pathogens, called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). The innate immune system is based mainly on physical and chemical barriers. There are three components of the innate immune system that includes anatomical barrier, humoral barrier and cellular barrier. Anatomical barriers called first line of defense includes skin, saliva, tears, mucus and cilia present in intestinal and respiratory tract. Skin act as a mechanical barrier whereas others are chemical barriers. If the pathogen escapes anatomical barriers acute inflammation occurs and humoral barrier comes into play. Humoral barriers include complement system and interleukin. Last is the cellular barrier that destroys the pathogen if it has entered the body by crossing the first two barriers. It includes various cells like neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells and dendritic cells.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archivingâ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.