|Neuroinflammation as the word defines is the inflammation of the nervous tissue. Neuroinflammation may be due to traumatic brain injury, infection, autoimmunity or toxic metabolites. The innate immune cells called microglia present in the central nervous system gets activated because of this. The activated microglia produces neurotoxic mediators. Microglia changes its cells morphology in response to neural injury. Acute inflammation occurs because of the activation of microglia. It occurs because of some neural injury after which the activated microglia migrates to the injured site and engulfs the debris and dead cells. Chronic inflammation causes inflammation of brain tissues and degradation of blood brain barrier. In this the neurodestructive effects expand and worsen the condition or disease. In chronic case the neurotoxic mediators remain activated for the longer time and increase in mediators lead to neuronal death.
The cause of neuroinflammation is related to oxidative damage. Oxidation occurs because of imbalance between toxins that form oxidative radicals and those antioxidants that neutralize those radicals. When the system gets imbalanced, oxidation occurs, not only among tissues of cardiovascular system, but also among brain tissues. Neuroinflammation causes neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson disease and Alzheimer disease. The symptoms of neurodegenerative disease include plaque formation, excessive pohosphorylation and dystrophic neurite growth. It is important to distinguish between acute and chronic neuroinflammation.