A bodys immune system is present to protect its body cells from foreign substances that cause diseases. It produces antibodies against the foreign antigens leading to their destruction and hence death. In addition to this, various immune cells like lymphocytes and monocytes disrupt foreign cells by the process of phagocytosis in a normal biological condition. But sometimes, due to an abnormal immune response, bodys immune system starts attacking its own healthy cells and tissues. It happens when the lymphocytes cannot distinguish between antigens and bodys own cells. This leads to destruction of bodys healthy tissues, which sometimes leads to death. Such conditions are referred to as the autoimmune diseases. The main consequence of such diseases is inflammation that leads to swelling, redness and chronic pain. The survey reports reflect that females get more acquainted with these diseases as compared to males.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2014