Cytokines are the chemical messengers released by the cells that help in the communication between the different cells. Cytokines are mainly secreted by the immune cells that act on other cells for coordinated immune response. Cytokines binds with high affinity to specific receptors present on the target cells and the cells that show response to the cytokines are either: 1) by same cell that secreted called autocrine, 2) by a neighboring cell called paracrine or 3) by a distant cell reached through the circulation called endocrine. Cytokines released by the immune cells causes inflammation and also activation of innate and adaptive immune response.
Cytokines are of three types: monokines, lymphokines and interleukins. The cytokines that are released by the mononuclear phagocytic cells are called monokines, the cytokines that are released by activated lymphocytes are termed as lymphokines and the cytokines that act as mediator between lymphocytes are called interleukins. Cytokines are not stored as preformed proteins. But their synthesis occurs by gene transcription and the mRNAs formed are also short lived. They are formed according to the need by immune responses. The production of one cytokine can influence the synthesis of other cytokines. They either produce some cascades, or suppress or increase the production of other cytokines. The effects produce by them can be antagonistic and synergistic. In addition to this, the cytokines are also involved in regulating metabolism, maintaining tissue homeostasis in adult organisms and wound healing.
Journal Article is sometimes called a Scientific Article, a Peer-Reviewed Article, or a Scholarly Research Article. Together, journal articles in a particular field are often referred to as The Literature.
Journal articles are most often Primary Research Articles. However, they can also be Review Articles. These types of articles have different aims and requirements. Sometimes, an article describes a new tool or method.
Because articles in scientific journals are specific, meticulously cited and peer-reviewed, journal databases are the best place to look for information on previous research on your species. Without a background in the field, journal articles may be hard to understand - however, you do not need to understand an entire article to be able to get valuable information from it.
Last date updated on June, 2021