Cytokines are the chemical messengers released by the cells that help in the communication between the different cells. Cytokines are mainly secreted by the immune cells that act on other cells for coordinated immune response. Cytokines binds with high affinity to specific receptors present on the target cells and the cells that show response to the cytokines are either: 1) by same cell that secreted called autocrine, 2) by a neighboring cell called paracrine or 3) by a distant cell reached through the circulation called endocrine. Cytokines released by the immune cells causes inflammation and also activation of innate and adaptive immune response.
Cytokines are of three types: monokines, lymphokines and interleukins. The cytokines that are released by the mononuclear phagocytic cells are called monokines, the cytokines that are released by activated lymphocytes are termed as lymphokines and the cytokines that act as mediator between lymphocytes are called interleukins. Cytokines are not stored as preformed proteins. But their synthesis occurs by gene transcription and the mRNAs formed are also short lived. They are formed according to the need by immune responses. The production of one cytokine can influence the synthesis of other cytokines. They either produce some cascades, or suppress or increase the production of other cytokines. The effects produce by them can be antagonistic and synergistic. In addition to this, the cytokines are also involved in regulating metabolism, maintaining tissue homeostasis in adult organisms and wound healing.
Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology, an official journal of OMICS Group publishes review articles on cytokines. Review articles are the summary of current state of understanding on a particular research topic. They analyze or discuss research previously published by scientist and academicians rather than reporting novel research results.
Review article comes in the form of systematic reviews and literature reviews and are a form of secondary literature. Systematic reviews determine an objective list of criteria, and find all previously published original research papers that meet the criteria. They then compare the results presented in these papers. Literature reviews, by contrast, provide a summary of what the authors believe are the best and most relevant prior publications.
The concept of "review article" is separate from the concept of peer-reviewed literature. It is possible for a review to be peer-reviewed, and it is possible for a review to be non-peer-reviewed.
Last date updated on September, 2014