Cytokines are the chemical messengers released by the cells that help in the communication between the different cells. Cytokines are mainly secreted by the immune cells that act on other cells for coordinated immune response. Cytokines binds with high affinity to specific receptors present on the target cells and the cells that show response to the cytokines are either: 1) by same cell that secreted called autocrine, 2) by a neighboring cell called paracrine or 3) by a distant cell reached through the circulation called endocrine. Cytokines released by the immune cells causes inflammation and also activation of innate and adaptive immune response.
Cytokines are of three types: monokines, lymphokines and interleukins. The cytokines that are released by the mononuclear phagocytic cells are called monokines, the cytokines that are released by activated lymphocytes are termed as lymphokines and the cytokines that act as mediator between lymphocytes are called interleukins. Cytokines are not stored as preformed proteins. But their synthesis occurs by gene transcription and the mRNAs formed are also short lived. They are formed according to the need by immune responses. The production of one cytokine can influence the synthesis of other cytokines. They either produce some cascades, or suppress or increase the production of other cytokines. The effects produce by them can be antagonistic and synergistic. In addition to this, the cytokines are also involved in regulating metabolism, maintaining tissue homeostasis in adult organisms and wound healing.
Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on October, 2020