|Immunodeficiency means when the body's immune response is reduced or absent. As the immune system protects the body from harmful substances called antigens like microorganisms, cancer cells, blood or tissues from another person and toxins, it is mediated by the immune response that includes responses by white blood cells which is composed of neutrophils and lymphocytes. Neutrophils engulf the foreign particle and destroy them by a process called phagocytosis. Lymphocytes can be divided into two types: T lymphocytes and B lymphocytes. T lymphocytes directly attack antigens (cellular immunity). B lymphocytes produce antibodies (humoral immunity) that attach to the antigen or foreign particle and make phagocytes and body chemicals, such as complement proteins, that helps in the destruction of the antigen or foreign particle.
In immunodeficiency there is the failure of one or more parts of the immune system. It can be divided into two categories primary immunodeficiency and acquired immunodeficiency. Primary immunodeficiency is caused by congenital/inherited defects and in primary immunodeficiency there is either deficiency in B cells, T cells or both B and T cells or due to defective phagocytes. Whereas acquired immunodeficiency is caused by a disease that affects the immune system. There are certain tests that can diagnose immunodeficiency disorder. The tests that indicate immunodeficiency disorder are low white blood cell count, low antibody or immunoglobulin levels, low complement levels. Immunodeficiency can be treated by gene therapy or bone marrow transplantation as no drug can be helpful in this disorder.
Journal of Clinical & Cellular Immunology is one of the scientific journals that publish all the papers related to immunology. Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.