it is an unfortunate reality that the morbidity and mortality rate caused by preventable infectious diseases remains high among the world poor. Factors such as high cost, ineffective healthcare infrastructure and poor access to refrigeration and transport severely constrains the accessibility of much needed vaccines for developing countries. Often the pathogen enters the host through mucosal surfaces located in the gastrointestinal, respiratory and reproductive tracts. In the early 1990, the Children Vaccine Initiative, comprised of an assembly of philanthropic groups and in conjunction with the World Health Organization, was established to move forward new technologies that aim to provide accessible vaccines and improved immunization programs on a global scale Rogalska TCurrent Status of Plants as Vaccine Production Platforms.
Vaccine development is a complexand time consuming process, which is highly complicated and needs high level of tests and trials. The process requires almost 10-15 years for completion. The process involves two important stages such as pre-clinical stage and clinical stage of vaccine development. The preclinical stage is the one which involves the basic processes such as discovery, screening and evaluation of the efficacy of vaccines. The clinical stage of vaccine development includes safety evaluation and related research. The Safety evaluation is also a process that requires several years for the complete rigorous evaluation processes.
Journal of Clinical and Cellular Immunology had released a special issue based on this topic Vaccine Development and Immune Response where we had considered this topic as a major issue of discussion.
Last date updated on July, 2014