|Diabetic retinopathy is a common microvascular complication associated with diabetes mellitus. Diabetic retinopathy is of two types: They are non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). NPDR occurs in initial stages of the disease and is characterized by microaneurysms, macular edema and other vascular lesions. In addition, lipid exudates, hemorrhages, cotton wool spots, and basement membrane thickening are also present in NPDR. Proliferative diabetic retinopathy is the advanced stage of DR and is characterized by highly permeable neovascularization, hemorrhages, and retinal detachment. DR is primarily diagnosed and monitored by fundus exam, which allows for visual detection of the vascular lesions and macular edema.
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