|Cataract, opacity of lens is a common cause of vision impairment in the elderly and the most common treatable cause of blindness ( 75%) in developing world. Opacity occurs when there is a buildup of protein in the lens that makes it cloudy. There are different types of cataract as age related, congenital, secondary and traumatic, in which age dependent found in majority. Identified risk factors are aging, heavy drinking, smoking, obesity, high blood pressure, previous eye injuries, family history, genetic composition, exposure to ultraviolet light and diabetes. There is no way to prevent cataracts from forming, once formed the only treatment is surgical removal of cataract and replacement with an artificial lens. Treatment of cataract continues to be a terrible challenge because of the barriers as cost, lack of population awareness, shortage of trained personnel and poor surgical outcomes. Phacoemulfication is the preferred method of surgery in developed countries but manual small incision can be preferred in the developing world because of low complication rates, significantly fast, less expansive, requires less technology and shown to give similar surgical outcomes as phacoemulfication.
Innovations are new idea, device or process. Innovations are the application of better solutions that meet new requirements, inarticulated needs or existing market needs. It is proficient through more effective products, processes, services, technologies, or new ideas that are readily available to markets, governments and society. Innovations are something original and novel, as a significant, new that âbreaks intoâ the market or society.