|Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness globally after cataracts. It is a distinct optical neuropathy, which results in characteristic nerve damage and a typical pattern of visual field loss often associated with excess fluid pressure in the eyeball. It can affect all age groups generally and the recognized risk factors are increased intraocular pressure, aging, family history, high myopia, systematic hypertension, cardiovascular disease, migraine headaches, peripheral vasospasm and prior nerve disease. It is a significant cause of blindness in the US and other industrialized countries.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is âself-archiving(i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.