Retinopathy occurs due to the acute damage to the retina of the eye. When the patient is not fully aware of the disease, vascular remodeling and ongoing inflammation may occur over periods of time. There are many causes of retinopathy like diabetes retinopathy due to diabetes mellitus, hypertensive retinopathy caused due to arterial hypertension, radiation retinopathy due to radiation, solar retinopathy due to exposure to sunlight. Out of all these diabetes retinopathy and hypertensive retinopathy are the most common.
Diabetes retinopathy (DR) is a very frequent microvascular complication of diabetes mellitus (DM); in fact, it is the leading cause of legal blindness in industrialized countries.DR has several pathogenetic steps: initially, glycosylation of structural proteins leads to the loss of pericytes of the retinal vessels; the consequences include bulging (micro-aneurysms) and rupture (micro-haemorrhages) of capillaries, which are associated with the extravasation of fluids and consequent retinal oedema. The consequence of these vascular abnormalities is retinal ischemia, which in turn, releases proangiogenic factors leading to many abnormal new vessels that proliferate and coat the cortical vitreous surface (proliferating DR). During this step, there is a higher risk of massive haemorrhage (vitreous haemorrhage) and tractional retinal detachment; when this damage occurs, the chances of recovering vision are poor.â
Francesco Semeraro: Anna Cancarini:ElianaForbice:Francesco Morescalchi: Simone Donati: Claudio Azzolini andCiroCostagliola, Erythropoietin and Diabetic Retinopathy.
Last date updated on January, 2021