Visual impairment (VI) is the loss of vision to such an extent which cannot be corrected by refractive correction or any medication and is caused through a significant limitation of visual capability from either disease, congenital or degenerative conditions or trauma. Eye disorders that lead to visual impairments include many diseases like retinal degeneration, cataract, albinism, muscular problems and glaucoma which causes visual disturbances, corneal disorders, congenital disorders, diabetic retinopathy and other infections. Visual impairment can also be caused due to brain and nerve disorders, in such case it is called cortical visual impairment (CVI).
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on September, 2014