Biopharmaceuticals are the chemical entities that are used as medical drugs in the treatment of illness which are produced by using biotechnological techniques. The biopharmaceuticals basically includes the macro-molecular products like proteins, nucleic acids, etc. which are employed as protein-based (like antibodies) and or nucleic acid-based (like antisense-oligonucleotide) drugs. The microorganisms like viruses and bacteria can also be used as biopharmaceutical therapeutics and or finds its application as in vivo diagnostic purposes. This subset of biopharmaceuticals including attenuated microorganisms and or the medical products composed of cellular or tissue based matter is generally referred as biologics for example stored RBC units. The attenuated microorganisms whose virulence has been reduced are produced by means other than the direct extraction from their native biological sources as using non-engineered biological sources may pose the higher risks in its usage. The first biopharmaceutical substance produced and approved for therapeutic use was insulin via recombinant DNA technology. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information.The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on May, 2021