Clinical pharmacology is the division of pharmacology with an added focus on the applications of pharmacological principles in the medical prescription and towards the patient care and an expected beneficial outcome. It is basically the science of drugs and their clinical and medical use. It encompasses a broad scope in terms from the discovery of new target molecules to the effects of drug usage in whole populations. Clinical pharmacology connects the gap between medical practice and laboratory science. It covers the aspects of rational prescribing of drugs, drug effects, drug interactions and drug development. Rational prescribing of drugs includes using the right medication with right route, at the right dosage and frequency of administration, and finally stopping the drug appropriately. The drug development usually culminates some form of clinical trials involving drug interactions and toxicological studies. The main objective of clinical pharmacology is to promote the safety of prescribed drugs, maximize the drug effects and minimize its side effects. Clinical pharmacology studies the following aspects of a drug, such as: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, rational prescribing of the drug, ADRs, toxicology, drug interactions and drug development.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel ï¿½roadsï¿½ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is ï¿½self-archivingï¿½ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014