Drug side effect is an effect that is secondary or unintended consequence of the drug administration in the body together with its intended purpose. The side effects of the drug can be either therapeutic or harmful to the body or a part of it. The drug side effects may vary from individual to individual and is dependent upon factors like age, gender, weight, disease, etc. The drug side effects can occur when starting or ending a drug medication regimen or while increasing or decreasing the dosage of it. In order to minimize the side effects of a drug, the current dosage may be adjusted or another medication can be prescribed. Also the lifestyle and or dietary changes may help to minimize the side effects of a drug. From a simple to the most sophisticated prescribed drug, all drugs come with side effects. The most common side effects for drug taken internally involve nausea or upset stomach, though it only happens to a handful of users. As compared to drugs applied externally skin irritation or allergy is commonly noticed.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel ï¿½roadsï¿½ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is ï¿½self-archivingï¿½ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014