Heart risks are the diseases associated with the heart and or blood vessels i.e., arteries, veins and capillaries. A cardiovascular disease primarily affects the cardiovascular system of the body; thereby causing vascular diseases of the brain and or kidney and peripheral arterial diseases. The causative agents of the cardiovascular diseases are diverse but atherosclerosis and or hypertension are the conditions that are found to be most common that are responsible for cardiovascular risks. Additionally, ageing is also responsible for cardiovascular risks in the individuals even in healthy conditions. A cardiovascular disease usually affects an individual at the older age but the preventive measures should be taken from childhood itself by modifying its underlying risk factors such as healthy eating, regular exercise, avoiding tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption, etc. Evidence suggests a number of other risk factors for heart disease like gender, family history, psycho-social factors, air pollution, etc. While some of the risk factors like age, gender, etc cannot be mutated however there are factors that can be modified by changing the lifestyle, drug administration and sociological changes.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel ï¿½roadsï¿½ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is ï¿½self-archivingï¿½ (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014