Pharmacology is a branch of science that deals with the scientific research involved in the characterization of chemicals which show biological effects; and the further elucidation of cellular and organism function in relation to these chemicals. These chemicals are generally termed as drugs and pharmacology is primarily concerned with the study of these drug actions. A drug can be broadly defined as any artificial, natural, or an endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, system, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. The field of pharmacology encompasses drug composition and its properties, drug synthesis and its design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ or systems mechanisms, signal transduction or cellular interactions, molecular diagnostics, toxicology studies, chemical biology, and medical applications. The two main areas of pharmacological studies include pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics deals with the studies of the effects of the drug on biological systems, and pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on the drug. In broad senses, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological reception, and pharmacokinetics further discusses the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) of those chemicals from the biological systems. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information.The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on May, 2014