Pharmacology is a branch of science that deals with the scientific research involved in the characterization of chemicals which show biological effects; and the further elucidation of cellular and organism function in relation to these chemicals. These chemicals are generally termed as drugs and pharmacology is primarily concerned with the study of these drug actions. A drug can be broadly defined as any artificial, natural, or an endogenous molecule which exerts a biochemical and/or physiological effect on the cell, tissue, organ, system, or organism. More specifically, it is the study of the interactions that occur between a living organism and chemicals that affect normal or abnormal biochemical function. The field of pharmacology encompasses drug composition and its properties, drug synthesis and its design, molecular and cellular mechanisms, organ or systems mechanisms, signal transduction or cellular interactions, molecular diagnostics, toxicology studies, chemical biology, and medical applications. The two main areas of pharmacological studies include pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics. Pharmacodynamics deals with the studies of the effects of the drug on biological systems, and pharmacokinetics studies the effects of biological systems on the drug. In broad senses, pharmacodynamics discusses the chemicals with biological reception, and pharmacokinetics further discusses the Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism, and Excretion (ADME) of those chemicals from the biological systems. A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on October, 2020