"Codon usage frequency tables clearly indicate that synonymous codons are not equally utilized (as would be expected if selection was random). The 1st and 3rd codon positions in exons (but not in introns) contain more G or C bases than the 2nd positions. There are three hydrogen bonds between C and G (dG=-1524 kcal/1000 bases) but only two between A and T (dG=-365 kcal/1000 bases). Consequently, the GC-rich 1st and 3rd codon residues contribute more to the thermodynamic force between complementary nucleic acid sequences (including the codonâanticodon interactions, folds, loops) than the 2nd codon residues. This is a statistically derived conclusion that is valid for large numbers of interactions and not for every interacting codon.
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Citation: Biro JC (2014) Suggestion to Upgrade the Canonical Concept of Translation. J Proteomics Bioinform 7: 112-120."
Last date updated on May, 2021