|Crisis management is the process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatens to harm the organization, its stakeholders, or the general public. The study of crisis management originated with the large-scale industrial and environmental disasters in the 1980s. Three elements are common to a crisis: (a) a threat to the organization, (b) the element of surprise, and (c) a short decision time. Research stands for the systematic investigation into and study of materials and sources in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions.
Journal Article is sometimes called a Scientific Article, a Peer-Reviewed Article, or a Scholarly Research Article. Together, journal articles in a particular field are often referred to as The Literature.
Scholarly journal is a peer-reviewed journal in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published. Scholarly journals serve as forums for the introduction and presentation for scrutiny of new research, and the critique of existing research. The term Scholarly journal applies to scholarly publications in all fields; this article discusses the aspects common to all academic field journals.