Academic journals are periodicals in which researchers publish their findings, mostly the recent ones. Academic journals are typically peer-reviewed journals that publish theoretical discussions and articles that critically review already published work. Academic journals serve as an important forum for researchers and academicians from where they can access important information about recent developments in their field. These journals are the first choice for any in-depth examination of an issue related to science. Science as we know is scarcely imaginable without the academic journal.
Cytopathology is a branch of science that studies and diagnoses diseases at the cellular level. Cytopathologic tests are sometimes called smear tests because the samples may be smeared across a glass microscope slide for subsequent staining and microscopic examination. free cells or tissue fragments are commonly used samples. It is used in the diagnosis of cancer, certain infectious diseases and other inflammatory conditions, investigate thyroid lesions, diseases involving sterile body cavities (peritoneal, pleural, and cerebrospinal), and a wide range of other body sites.
There are two methods for collecting cells for cytopathologic analysis: Exfoliative Cytology and intervention cytology. Exfoliative Cytology- here cells are collected once they have been either spontaneously shed by the body ("spontaneous exfoliation") or manually scraped/brushed off of a surface in the body ("mechanical exfoliation"). Intervention cytology- in this method, the cells are collected from the lesions or cell masses using syringes by the application of negative pressure i.e., suction in order to increase the yield. Cytopathologic techniques are used in the examination of virtually all body organs and tissues: female reproductive tract, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, peritoneum, pleura and pericardium, female breast, thyroid gland, lymph nodes, lungs and airways, alimentary tract, Soft tissue, bone and skin, Kidney and adrenal glands, Central nervous system, Eye, Salivary gland.
Last date updated on February, 2021