Communication impairments refer to any disorder that impairs language abilities, speaking, hearing, or otherwise normal communication with others. Communication is essential to learn, work, and social interaction. Any impairment in communication can cause disturbance in every aspect of a persons life. These communication disorders may range from simple sound substitution to the inability to understand. It can be categorized into two main groups: hearing disorder and speech & language disorder.
Communication disorders are usually first diagnosed in childhood or adolescence. Treatment involves the following methods: helping the patients to develop and improve their communication abilities, developing coping strategies and alternative communication options
and uses of stimulant medications as a treatment for any impulsivity or hyperactivity symptoms that may be present. Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals. Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on January, 2021