Speech language pathology is the study of disorders that affect a person¬ís speech, language, cognition, voice, swallowing (dysphagia) and the rehabilitative or corrective treatment of physical and/or cognitive deficits/disorders resulting in difficulty with communication and/or swallowing. The components of speech production include: phonation, producing sound; resonance; intonation, variance of pitch; and voice, including aeromechanical components of respiration. The components of language include: phonology, manipulating sound according to the rules of a language; morphology, understanding and using minimal units of meaning; syntax, constructing sentences by using languages' grammar rules; semantics, interpreting signs or symbols of communication to construct meaning; and pragmatics, social aspects of communication. Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.
Last date updated on December, 2020