Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a diet-influenced disease. Gluten-free diet protects against diabetes. Eight percent of T1D patients also develop celiac disease and they far most commonly acquire T1D before diagnosis of celiac disease, possibly due to the termination of gluten exposure following celiaci. The mechanisms behind the diet-mediated modification of diabetes are not known in all details but several possibilities have been elucidated. Firstly, gluten-free diet changes the composition of the intestinal flora and fx the diabetes-protective Akkermansia is popping up. Secondly, the intestinal is less permeable and, thirdly, the inflammation level is reduced. Fourthly, gliadin fragments, especially a 33-mer peptide, have direct effects on the beta-cells by enhancing their insulin-production that is not seen when the diet is gluten-free.
The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on July, 2014