|Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a condition defined by an elevated level of blood glucose Type 1 diabetes is characterized by deficiency of insulin due to progressive destruction of pancreatic beta cells, progressing to absolute insulin deficiency. Type 2 diabetes is a combination of insulin resistance and beta cell failure in association with obesity and sedentary life style. However, not all overweight/ obese individuals have diabetes and vice- versa. Type 2 DM develops following a prolonged period of euglycemic insulin resistance(IR) which progresses with development of beta cell failure to frank diabetes with increase risk of vascular complications. While microvascular complications like retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy develop with overt hyperglycemia, macrovascular complications like coronary artery disease, cerebrovascular disease and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) appear earlier during the stage of IFG and IGT. Thus these complications are already established when type 2 DM is diagnosed. Microvascular complications of DM are reduced by tight glycemic control.
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