Pre-diabetes is defined as a metabolic clinical condition able to predispose affected individual to a future development of diabetes. Pre-diabetes involves the following two conditions: impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and/or impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). glycated hemoglobin (HbA1C) plasma levels ranging from 5.7% to 6.4% is further consider as pre-diabetic condition. Pre-diabetes conditions may be associated to increased cardiovascular risk profile of individuals.
The pathogenesis of the vascular impairment in pre-diabetic conditions is particularly intriguing. It is known that two metabolic defects occur in most patients suffering from T2D: insulin resistance and/or insulin secretion deficiency. The consequence of the impaired insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells can be due to a loss of beta cells or impairment in the beta cell function. People suffering from pre-diabetes often reveal insulin-resistance. The interaction between hyperglycemia, pre-diabetes and vascular impairment is more complex. hyperglycemia and pre-diabetic condition in enhancing deposition of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins: the consequence is a progressive thickening of the internal and external elastic membrane of the vascular walls and an increasing in vessels stiffness. Pericyte loss, capillary microaneurysms and vascular proliferation are further vascular alteration observed in pre-diabetic individuals.
Last date updated on January, 2021