|Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Diabetic retinopathy is considered as the disease of eye associated with diabetes. It is caused by the blood vessels changes in the retina. After these blood vessels get damaged, the leaking of blood may occur resulting in the growth of fragile new vessels. These changes of cell damage leads to the impairment of vision. These changes can result in blurring of the vision, hemorrhage into the eye, or, if untreated, retinal detachment can also take place. Microaneurysms, Retinal edema and hard exudates, Cotton-wool spots, Dot and blot hemorrhages, Macular edema are some of the related causes of Diabetic retinopathy. Fluorescein angiography, Optical coherence tomography scanning and B-scan ultrasonography are the preferred diagnosis for Diabetic retinopathy. This is further classified as mild, moderate and severe depending on the presence of various deciding factors. Maintaining a regular exercise and a healthy diet, keeping blood sugar within the normal limits and the prescribed medications can be opted in the day to day life to prevent diabetic retinopathy.