A disaster could be a natural or artificial (or technological) hazard leading to an occurrence of considerable extent inflicting important physical harm or destruction, loss of life, or forceful modification to the atmosphere. A disaster may be extensively outlined as any tragic event stemming from events like earthquakes, floods, harmful accidents, fires, or explosions. Researchers are learning disasters for quite a century, and for quite forty years disaster analysis for the better understanding of the events restricted to disaster science and related areas. Man-made disasters are the consequence of technological or human hazards. Examples embody stampedes, fires, transport oil spills and nuclear radiation. War and deliberate attacks might also be place during this class. Like natural hazards, artificial hazards are events that haven't happened, for example terrorist act. Artificial disasters are samples of specific cases wherever artificial hazards became reality in an occurrence.
The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on June, 2014