|DNA microarrays also called as biochip, is a collection of DNA spots on a solid firm surface. DNA microarrays find its application in studying the expression levels of large number of genes. Each spot has a specific DNA sequence popularly called as probe. These probes attaches to the target sample to form a hybrid that is detected by chemiluminiscence technology. Array term in simple terms refers to the stretch of tens of thousands of something in this particular case, probes. This DNA array of probes can be effectively applied to conduct various genetic level tests to study the molecular mechanisms and the resulting physiological effect on the organism. In order to manufacture one, various studies of sciences come into play for example surface chemistry, surface engineering and electronics. One such example is Affy chip where these long stretch of probes are being covalently attached to the surface by means of surface chemistry on a solid medium, where the product can effectively applied to conduct the test required to study the expression of a particular gene at molecular level.
A journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting new research. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles, reviews, editorials, short communications, letters, and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Journals contain articles that peer reviewed, in an attempt to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.