|"Worldwide, over 10,000 different dyes and pigments are used in textile, cosmetic, printing, drug, and food-processing industries. Most of synthetic textile dyes are mutagenic and/or carcinogenic and belong to the most dangerous pollutants. Although conventional chemical and physical techniques such as precipitation, adsorption, and ozonation have been employed for the decolorization of dye effluents, they possess inherent limitations such as high cost, formation of hazardous by-products, and intensive energy requirements. As a feasible alternative, dye decolorization using microorganisms has recently received much attention owing to their cost effectiveness.
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