endoscopic surgery is currently regarded as standard treatment in numerous surgical endeavors. Advances in endoscopic surgery have
provided patients with less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays ,and an earlier return to work. For the surgeon, however, endoscopic
surgery seems to be more stressful than open surgery. For example, several skills that are not required for open surgery are necessary
for endoscopic surgery. The lack of stereoscopic vision on a two dimensional [2D] display is one of the most significant difficulties
for the endoscopic surgeon, who performs laparoscopic surgery or thoracoscopic surgery. The lack of stereoscopic vision on a 2D display
causes visual misperceptions based on the loss of depth perception. To compensate for this lack, expert endoscopic surgeons use visual clues
from a 2D display, such as object interposition, relative motion of the endoscope, familiar anatomy, and the size of anatomical structures.
Acquiring familiarity with, and the ease of identifying, these landmarks takes an investment of much time and effort. Thus, the endoscopic
surgeon must invest a great deal of time to gain the extensive experience necessary to become familiar with these depth clues and overcome the
lack of depth perception.
Last date updated on July, 2014