Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a fatal malignant tumor of the hepatobiliary system with a higher incidence in Eastern countries.
The highest incidence of CCA was found in Southeast Asia, especially Thailand, which was 71.3:100,000 in men and 31.6:100,000 in women , followed by China and some other countries in Southeast Asia , whereas data from the USA, Europe, and Australia showed overall
incidences of 0.82:100,000, 0.9â5.5:100,000, and 0.8â1.0:100,000,respectively. This discrepancy in disease incidence can be
explained according to the pathogenesis of CCA, although cases of CCA were sporadic. Strong risk factors for CCA include older age, male gender,
chronic hepatobiliary tract inflammation such as primary sclerosing cholangitis, chronic hepatolithiasis, choledochal cyst, and chronic
parasitic infestations such as Opisthorchis viverrini and Chlonorchis sinensis. Other recently reported possible risk factors include
chronic viral hepatitis infections such as hepatitis B and C, obesity,non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, and metabolic syndrome. In the
highest incidence area of CCA, O. viverrini plays a very important role in the tumorgenicity of CCA.
Last date updated on March, 2021