Epidemiology is the need for high specificity typing of disease agents: to confirm trace back of disease to origin, to monitor the spread of disease causing strains, to study population dynamics of the disease strain, to discern endemic/enzootic from epidemic/epizootic infections, to detect the presence of multiple strain (s) in the population and/or individual, to identify modes of transmission of the disease agent from host to host, and to address other epidemiological questions or issues. Molecular subtyping has been generally found to be better than most traditional phenotypic subtyping methods because it is usually more discriminating and less influenced by the organisms responses to environmental cues. A large number of molecular techniques have been adapted for application to epidemiological issues, and different techniques are needed for different aspects of investigation.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant).
Last date updated on May, 2014