|Monitoring and controlling of the process parameters is very essential in all industries and effective methods to monitor those parameters are need to be developed, optimized and need to be maintained at their maximum efficiency in order to meet the desired product yield and product quality. Varieties of products are being manufactured through biotechnological processes which include various primary and secondary metabolites, tissues, vaccines, therapeutic proteins etc. Various factors are involved in cultivation of cells and production of the desired product by biotechnological process which includes, medium composition, bioreactor designing, identifying and controlling very minute parameters in narrow ranges in order to obtain the desired product quality and productivity. During the process of fermentation, those minute parameters are to be monitored and controlled within the operating ranges that decided the quantity and quality of the product. Process parameter monitoring requires a detection system to measure, to analyse, to monitor and to control the required parameters within the given r operational range. Various monitoring systems have been implanted which includes manual mode of operation, off-line mode of operation and online mode of operation. Among all, online mode of operation is the best operative mode which identifies, measures, analyses and controls the required parameter as fermentation is in progress.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.