|Utilization of medium or substrate in the fermentation process is responsible for the product formation. Based on type of the fermentation process and product formed and the medium used, the range of waste materials are produced. Type of the treatment to be applied for effluent depends upon various factors like physical state of the effluent, degree of hazard of pollutant, chemical complexity of the effluent and so on. The simple way of disposing the waste produced is just to dispose them no nearby water-bodies or to convenient open land. But, now it has become almost impossible to practice that measure due to increased population, increased industrial development, awareness on damages caused by pollution made industries in order to treat them prior to their disposal into environment. Concerned company need to install a effluent treatment plant in its premises, if company doesnât find a way to dispose the waste or if degree of composition is not suitable for the treatment by the nearby sewage treatment bodies. Effluents of fermentation do not contain toxic materials that affect the life around their disposal area. But unfortunately, effluents of fermentation now-a-days do contain many toxicants that affect the flora and fauna by reacting with the microbes and drastically decreasing the dissolved oxygen levels of that area. In various ways the effluent can be treated viz. by oxidative ponds (lagoons), spray irrigation, well disposal, and incineration etc. physical treatment process of sewage is done by filtration and sedimentation, chemical treatment process done by flocculation, coagulation , aggregation methods which are done by addition of various flocculants and coagulants like alum, ferric sulphide, calcium hydroxide etc. finally with biological treatment trickling filters, biologically aerated filters, rotating biological contractors, activated sludge process come with aerobic way and anaerobic digesters, anaerobic filters, up-flow anaerobic sludge blankets come with anaerobic treatment processes.
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