Enzymes are the biocatalysts that are capable of mediating many biological reactions and conversion of element into other intermediate products and so on to the final product. Coming to their activity, total enzyme will not be involved in any conversion of substrate to a product. Only, a specific part of the enzyme named âactive siteâ is involved in the reaction phenomenon. Any modifications at the active site will lead to the activity change of that particular enzyme and even that might make an enzyme to lose its activity totally and permanently. In order to make an enzyme to show its maximum potency in conversion of substrate to desired product, many parameters need to be optimized which include pH, temperature, concentration of enzyme, concentration of substrate, reaction time and even many modifications need to be done at the genetic level of that particular enzyme in order to manipulate the enzyme in all the possible ways to give maximum yield of the desired product yield and desired product quality. Until all the parameters required for the better production of desired product are not optimized, that process will not be approved to scale-up studies at higher quantities. Optimizing all the parameters favouring the better production of the product will let the scale up studies to pilot scale and then to industrial level production can be done successively.
The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
Last date updated on October, 2014