|Enzymes are the biocatalysts that are capable of mediating many biological reactions and conversion of element into other intermediate products and so on to the final product. Coming to their activity, total enzyme will not be involved in any conversion of substrate to a product. Only, a specific part of the enzyme named active site is involved in the reaction phenomenon. Any modifications at the active site will lead to the activity change of that particular enzyme and even that might make an enzyme to lose its activity totally and permanently. In order to make an enzyme to show its maximum potency in conversion of substrate to desired product, many parameters need to be optimized which include pH, temperature, concentration of enzyme, concentration of substrate, reaction time and even many modifications need to be done at the genetic level of that particular enzyme in order to manipulate the enzyme in all the possible ways to give maximum yield of the desired product yield and desired product quality. Until all the parameters required for the better production of desired product are not optimized, that process will not be approved to scale-up studies at higher quantities. Optimizing all the parameters favouring the better production of the product will let the scale up studies to pilot scale and then to industrial level production can be done successively.
Scientific journal is a periodical publication intended to further progress of science, usually by reporting novel research. There are thousands of scientific journals in publication, and many more have been published at various points in the past. Most journals are highly specialized, although some of the oldest journals publish articles and scientific papers across a wide range of scientific fields. Scientific journals contain articles that are peer reviewed, to ensure that articles meet the journal's standards of quality, and scientific validity. The publication of the results of research is an essential part of the scientific method. If they are describing experiments or calculations, they must supply enough details that an independent researcher could repeat the experiment or calculation to verify the results. Each such journal article becomes part of the permanent scientific record.