|A fermenter is designed to provide a controlled and favorable environment for the growth of cells irrespective of their nature either they are bacterial or fungi or plant or animal cells. Few aspects to be considered while we design a fermenter are about its proper aeration and agitation, low power consuming, controlling of operational and fermenter parameters should be provided, should be aseptically operated, sampling facilities should be provided, design should ensure minimal use of labor for operation, cleaning, harvesting and maintaining the fermenter, it should be economical in its manufacture. Various parts which include are large container, agitators and impellers, motor, baffles, spargers, valves, sensors and probes, coolant/steam jackets etc. Based on the type of the cell culture put in use, we can select any of the following fermenter as per the requirements of the process. Either we can select stirred tank fermenters, air-lift fermenters, plug flow reactors, fluidized bed bioreactors, packed-bed bioreactors, bubble column fermenters accordingly to the requirement.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel âroadsâ towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.