|Development of active logarithmic microbial culture that is suitable for the final industrial production level is known as inoculum development. Inoculum we use for industrial fermentations should be in its active, healthy and exponential growth phase, it should be available free of contamination in required large volumes, it should retain its capability of formation of desired product formation. A two-stage inoculum development programme is used for the production of proteases by Bacillus subtilis. The process is a stepwise and gradual increase in scaling-up the volume of inoculum to the desired level, which includes preparation of bacterial suspension (either vegetative cells or spores) in sterile tap water and then to the broth or in case of fungi, their hyphae are transferred to the broth. This is usually done using flask cultures ranging in between 50 ml to 12 lt and volume of the flask or container can be increased as per the need. Volume of inoculum we add to fermenter should be about 5 % to that of media volume. Major pitfalls we should be aware of are the risk of contamination and the degeneration of strain.
Peer review refers to the work done during the screening of submitted manuscripts and funding applications. This process encourages authors to meet the accepted standards of their discipline and reduces the dissemination of irrelevant findings, unwarranted claims, unacceptable interpretations, and personal views. Publications that have not undergone peer review are likely to be regarded with suspicion by academic scholars and professionals.