|Microorganisms are such life forms which cannot be seen by naked eye. But these microbes are said to be omnipotent with the nature that their existence is proved everywhere. They are present in soil, water, air, food, in animal intestines etc. and even their existence is proved with extreme conditions like within rocks, in glaciers, in hot springs and so on. Due to many selections and mutations made by environment towards microbes, led them to stay and survive with such extreme habitats and made them, the fittest of survival.
Among huge microbial diversity, human race succeeded exploiting only a little part of microbial population for their own benefits. Human made lot many modifications toward microbial genomes with the help of biotechnological tools that improved the potency of microbes in terms of desired criteria accordingly the need. Especially, usage of microbes as factories in industrial fermentations for the production of various products like antibiotics, vaccines, hormones, peptides, beverages, fermented foods, organic acids and so on. Where, the bio-transformation capacity of microbe is exploited in terms of converting specific substrate to a desirable product under a set of favourable conditions. Here, with fermentation technology, aspect of strain selection accordingly to the need and optimizing its product production levels with improvement techniques are done at genetic level with help of tools of biotechnology.
Here with this specific area, we deal with strain isolation and improvement according to the product to be isolated and it involves various methods to isolate and purify the required microbial strain out of mixed population and its various strain improvement techniques at genetic level.