In order to increase the yield of the product and to maintain the product quality consistently, key issues of process optimization, industrial fermentation and scale-up studies are targeted at maintaining a set of homogenous conditions that reduces and minimizes the microbial risk towards stress and enhance their productivity by improving their metabolic accuracy. For every individual product, the set of process parameters that influence the yield and quality of the product will change. Those set of process parameters might be a single parameter or in combination with other parameter or many individual parameters and those parameters need to be identified and need to be optimized accordingly to the microbe used and product formed. Process parameters characterizations need to be done either based on in situ or online measurements or by various optimization techniques in order to find out the optimized set of conditions those enhance the product yield and quality and reduces the risk to the microbial source in all the possible ways.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on October, 2014