|Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common endocrinopathy in dogs. DM is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia and can be diagnosed and monitored using clinical signs (polyuria, polydipsia, polyphagia and weight loss), serum glucose levels, blood glucose curves, serum fructosamine levels and glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations. Glycosylated hemoglobin is a hemoglobin product with a glucose attached to its N-terminal valine, which forms a beta-chain. This process is slow, non-enzymatic and irreversible. Three types of glycosylated hemoglobin have been identified in the dogs, including hemoglobin (Hb) A1a, A1b and A1c. HbA1c is the most important glycosylated fraction of the hemoglobin molecule compared with A1a and A1b.
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