There are three types of canines used in human scent procedures; tracking dogs, trailing dogs and scent identification dogs. Tracking dogs are trained to methodically follow odor on the ground caused by human or ground disturbance and are typically not presented on an object. Trailing dogs have a propensity to either follow a ground disturbance odor and/or target odor plumes and are typically pre-scented on an object. Scent identification canines are given a scent which is collected from the scene of a crime and are instructed to match this to a scent sample collected from a possible suspect, thus establishing an association between a suspect and an object or location, establishing corpus delicti. However, scent identification canines are not trained to track or trail, simply to match odor of one object to the odor of another and the training given to each type of canine determines the method used to match odors. Scent identification canines are given such a high degree of training that they may also be trained to match odor not just from different individuals but also from different areas of the body from the same individual. This type of scent discrimination is possible as it is believed that persons have distinctive odors and canines have the ability to discriminate between these odors. Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on November, 2020