Breast cancer is a disease in which certain cells in the breast become abnormal and multiply without control or order to form a tumor. The most common form of breast cancer begins in cells lining the ducts that carry milk to the nipple (ductal cancer). Other forms of breast cancer begin in the glands that produce milk (lobular cancer) or in other parts of the breast.
Early breast cancer usually does not cause pain and may exhibit no noticeable symptoms. As the cancer progresses, signs and symptoms can include a lump or thickening in or near the breast; a change in the size or shape of the breast; nipple discharge, tenderness, retraction and skin irritation, dimpling, or scaliness.Variations of the BRCA1, BRCA2, CDH1, STK11, and TP53 genes increase the risk of developing breast cancer. The AR, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1, CHEK2, DIRAS3, ERBB2, NBN, PALB2, RAD50, and RAD51 genes are associated with breast cancer. Cancers occur when a buildup of genetic mutations in critical genes those that control cell growth and division or the repair of damaged DNA allow cells to grow and divide uncontrollably to form a tumor. In most cases, these genetic changes are acquired during a person's lifetime and are present only in certain cells. These changes, which are called somatic mutations, are not inherited. Less commonly, gene mutations inherited from a parent increase the risk of developing cancer. In people with these inherited genetic changes, additional somatic mutations in other genes must occur for cancer to develop.
High-impact journals are those considered to be highly influential in their respective fields. The impact factor of journal provides quantitative assessment tool for grading, evaluating, sorting and comparing journals of similar kind. It reflects the average number of citations to recent articles published in science and social science journals in a particular year or period, and is frequently used as a proxy for the relative importance of a journal within its field. It is first devised by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information.The impact factor of a journal is evaluated by dividing the number of current year citations to the source items published in that journal during the previous two years.
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Last date updated on July, 2014