Geosciences conjointly referred to as oceanology and marine science, is that the branch of natural science that studies the ocean. Geosciences covers a large variety of topics as well as marine organisms and scheme dynamics; ocean currents, waves, and geology fluid dynamics; tectonics and therefore the earth science of the ocean floor; and fluxes of assorted chemical substances and physical properties among the ocean and across its boundaries. The study of the oceans is joined to understanding international climate changes, potential warming and connected part issues. The study of Geosciences is split into branches: Biological earth science investigates the ecology of marine organisms within the context of the physical, chemical, and earth science characteristics of their ocean surroundings.
Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
Last date updated on June, 2014