"Global surveillance can be described as the practice of globalized mass surveillance of entire populations across national borders The origins of global surveillance can be traced back to the late 1940s, after the UKUSA Agreement was jointly enacted by the United Kingdom and the United States, which eventually culminated in the creation of the global surveillance network code-named ""ECHELON in 1971. Its existence, however, was not widely acknowledged until the global surveillance disclosure by Edward Snowden triggered a debate about the right to privacy in the digital age. According to the April 2013 summary of documents leaked by Snowden, other than to combat terrorism, these surveillance programs were employed to assess the foreign policy and economic stability of other countries, and to gather ""commercial secrets"".
Impact Factor of a journal is calculated by measuring the average number of citations to recent articles published in the particular journal. Impact factor gives the importance of a Specific journal with respect to other journals. Impact factor is calculated based on the average number of citations a paper published in a particular journal receives in a span of two years. Impact factor for the new journals will be considered after two years. Impact factor of a particular journal will give complete picture of the quality and standards of the journals. For example, if a journal has an impact factor of 5 in 2011, then its papers published in 2009 and 2010 received 5 citations each on average in 2011. The 2011 impact factor of a journal would be calculated as follows:
X = Number citation for the articles published during 2009 and 2010.
Y = the total number of articles published by that journal in 2009 and 2010
2011 impact factor = X/Y.
Last date updated on August, 2021