Endometriosis is defined as the growth of endometrial glands and stroma outside the uterine cavity. Pelvic endometriosis is commonly found at pelvic peritoneum, on the surface of the uterus, adnexa and also intestinal serosa. The most common site of extrapelvic endometriosis is intestine. Most of these lesions are asymptomatic and often diagnosed at operative time. Sometimes, patients with intestinal endometriosis might present with non-specific symptoms such as colicky pain, nausea, vomiting, constipation and gut obstruction. Classically, the symptoms get worse during menses. Intestinal endometriosis occurs in 5 -15% of endometriosis patients. The common sites of intestinal endometriosis are rectosigmoid area (72 percent), rectovaginal septum (13 percent), small intestine (7 percent), caecum (3.6 percent) and appendix (3 percent). Many of intestinal endometriosis patients present with gastrointestinal symptoms; therefore, radiological examination and endoscopic examination of the intestinal tract are usually performed as the initial investigation. The results often lead to misdiagnosis as various inflammatory lesions or tumor of intestine. If intestinal endometriosis is identified, complete excision of the lesion offers good long term symptomatic relief. In some cases, segmental resection of the intestine might be performed for complete removal of all lesions.
Last date updated on January, 2021