|It is well known that the neuropsychological assessment on cognitive aging that addressed to community dwelling elderly people, evaluation of attention, memory and verbal function are the crucially important for screening cognitive decline. In the case of health care examination for community dwellers, verbal function is popularly assessed by the verbal fluency test. Verbal fluency tests, which commonly consist of Letter Fluency Tests (LFT) and Semantic or category Fluency Tests (SFT), are widely used for neuropsychological assessment of language-related executive functioning. For the LFT, participants are required to generate words starting with a given letter. Participants are given one minute to produce as many words as they can, with a request not to use proper nouns or repeat words. The letters used for the LFT depend on the linguistic culture. For example, F, A, S are commonly used target letters in English-speaking countries, while the letter F is not suitable for Indonesian; in Japanese the syllables A, Ka, Shi have been recommended. For the SFT, participants are required to generate nouns belonging to a given semantic category (e.g., animals).
Sex Difference in Cognitive Aging for Letter Fluency and Semantic Fluency
Takeshi Hatta et al