|Open access to the scientific literature means the removal of barriers (including price barriers) from accessing scholarly work. There are two parallel roads towards open access: Open Access articles and self-archiving. Open Access articles are immediately, freely available on their Web site, a model mostly funded by charges paid by the author (usually through a research grant). The alternative for a researcher is self-archiving (i.e., to publish in a traditional journal, where only subscribers have immediate access, but to make the article available on their personal and/or institutional Web sites (including so-called repositories or archives)), which is a practice allowed by many scholarly journals.
Open Access raises practical and policy questions for scholars, publishers, funders, and policymakers alike, including what the return on investment is when paying an article processing fee to publish in an Open Access articles, or whether investments into institutional repositories should be made and whether self-archiving should be made mandatory, as contemplated by some funders.
The liver is the body's largest organ and hepatology is a large field. It includes the study of acute and chronic hepatitis, viral hepatitis, cirrhosis, genetic and metabolic liver diseases and their complications, liver cancer, liver transplantation, drug metabolism, and immunology as it pertains to the liver. Hepatology is a branch of medicine concerned with the study and management of diseases that affect the liver, gallbladder, biliary tree and pancreas. The term hepatology is derived from the Greek word hepar that means liver and logia that means study. Hepatology has previously been considered a subspecialty of gastroenterology, but nowadays doctors can specialize in hepatology alone.